Cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and cancer were assessed at baseline and for up to 180 days. The main biomarker studied was NNAL – 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyll)-1-butanol, showing the effects of nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (associated with lung cancer). In those who continue to smoke, its level remained stable throughout the observation period. In those who switched to the tobacco heating system, the level of NNAL decreased by 33-93%, in those who quit smoking – by 62-98% according to the analysis from the 30th to the 180th day.
When compared with a group of subjects who continued smoking, after 180 days there was a significant decrease in numerous BPV, including the total level of 8-epi-PGF2a (prostaglandin produced as a result of oxidative stress associated with cardiovascular diseases, COPD, cancer), the relative concentration of exhaled nitric oxide and the number of leukocytes (an inflammation marker showing the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases).
Participants who switched to using a tobacco heating system showed a 2-fold increase in the level of FeNO
(an indicator of respiratory tract inflammation, lung health levels and vascular tone). There was also a significant decrease in marker 11-dTx B2 (blood clotting index, elevated concentrations are a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases) and an increase in HDL (an indicator of lipid metabolism, there is an inverse relationship between the level of HDL and the frequency of cardiovascular diseases).